Mohammed Arkoun (1928–2010) was a leading scholar of Islam of Algerian origins, teaching in France. For more than thirty years he applied academic disciplines of the West to the history and literature of the Muslim world and its ancient traditions. He was known as an advocate of a new Islamic modernism and humanism.
The ordeal of Islam /2. How can we safeguard the theological validity of the definition of the Koran in use for centuries by all the Umma and be able to condemn without any equivocations the use that Ban Laden and his supporters make of the text? In reality, people are content to select passages favourable to peace and tolerance so as to oppose them to those exhibited by militant fundamentalists on recourse to a 'just' war. A proposal for the opening of a 'subversive work', which is at the same time prophetic and rational, so as to escape the vicious circle.