The collapse not only of states but also of societies seems unstoppable in the Middle East. Do you see any signs of a trend reversal?
No. For the time being, societies are continuing to disintegrate without re-forming, whether it be in Iraq, Syria, Libya or Yemen. The exodus towards Europe also testifies to this indirectly. If we are to understand what is happening, we need first of all to take stock of the numbers in all their magnitude, without being naïve: today, 11 or 12 million Syrians out of a total of 22 million are displaced persons or refugees. The problem is so enormous that one can talk not only of a collapse of societies but also of their disappearance or extinction, to borrow a term from the natural sciences. It’s true that counter-examples can also be cited: the Kurdish society under construction, Egypt or Tunisia…. But wherever war reigns, the disintegration is steadily accelerating.
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