Olivier Roy (1949) is a Senior Researcher at the French National Centre for Scientific Research (since 1985) and, from 2003 on, a professor at the European University of Florence. Since 2003 he is also professor at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS). He headed the OSCE’s Mission for Tajikistan (1993-94) and was a Consultant for the UN Office of the Coordinator for Afghanistan (1988). His field works include Political Islam, Middle East, Islam in the West and comparative religions. He is agrégé of philosophy and graduated from the Institut Natianl des Langues et Civilisations Orientales (Persian). Prof. Roy received an “Agrégation de Philosophie” and a Ph.D. in Political Sciences. He is the author of: L’échec de l’Islam politique, Seuil, Paris, 1992, L’Islam mondialisé, Seuil, Paris, 2002 and La Sainte ignorance. Le temps des religions sans culture, Seuil, Paris 2008.