He is an Iranian-Canadian philosopher and political scientist. He received his PhD in Philosophy from the Sorbonne University. He has been a researcher at the French Institute for Iranian Studies and a fellow at the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at Harvard University. He is an Associate Professor of Political Science at York University in Toronto, Canada and a member of the advisory board of PEN Canada. Among his twenty five books in English, French, Spanish, Italian and Persian are: Iran: Between Tradition and Modernity (2004) Talking Politics (2010), Civil Society and Democracy in Iran (2013).