Shiism is a stream of Islam mainly spread in Iran, Iraq, Lebanon and the Gulf. It differs from Sunnism in its conception of religious authority
How the Shi‘ite Clergy Entered Politics
Born as a revolutionary movement, Shi‘ite Islam saw the role of the ulama grow constantly and uninterruptedly during the course of its history until a genuine hierarchy, dominated by the authority of the marja‘iyya, was created from the nineteenth century onward
Appeal to the Shiites: Integrated not Hegemonic
Creative jurisprudence. In his Testaments Muhammad Mahdi Shamseddine produced a general vision of Islam that is characterised by clemency and moderation. And he called on the Muslim faithful to belong to the world in order to contribute to the construction of a civil state that would defend the complex components of society.
Thirty Years of (not always Achieved) Ambitions
It was not Persian but Shi’ism that crystallised the unity of the modern State. And it was for this reason that the ousting of the Shah and the establishment of the Islamic Republic were able to base themselves on a tradition that is well rooted in national identity